Photos from the protests showed Pinarayi Vijayan, the chief minister of Kerala, and Health Minister KK Shylaja in attendance. Thousands of women could be seen raising hands and fists while forming the wall.
The judgment allowing women inside the Sabarimala Temple was the culmination of a decades-long battle to overturn the ban.
The prohibition was first challenged before the Kerala High Court in August 1991, with the high court ruling that only a priest could make the decision on allowing women access to the temple, a golden-roofed structure thought to be more than 800 years old.
It is considered the spiritual home of Lord Ayyappa, a Hindu god of growth.
Nestled atop a steep mountain amid a lush green tiger reserve, it’s the site of one of the world’s largest annual pilgrimages, with millions of Hindu devotees making the journey each year.
Sabarimala had previously been off-limits to women of menstrual age on religious grounds, with proponents of the ban arguing that since Ayyappa is considered celibate, allowing “impure” women into the shrine would be disrespectful. Others have maintained that women cannot complete the 41 days of penances, a condition required to undertake the pilgrimage.
Modi’s ruling Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) has previously voiced opposition with the Supreme Court’s decision.
Amit Shah, the leader of the BJP, has billed the debate as one between people of faith and an oppressive state government in Kerala.
The BJP has historically espoused Hindu-nationalist positions, and some of its more extreme candidates have been accused of being anti-Muslim.
CNN’s Sugam Pokharel contributed to this report.